As is the case with many plants, Cannabis produces a wide range of chemicals. The most famous of these are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD), but there are many more contributors to the experience that are often overlooked. Terpenes and the nearly identical terpinoids are one of the more interesting chemical types produced by cannabis because they are largely responsible for the delicate tastes and potentially overwhelming smells.
There are a number of ways that growers can increase Terpene production to help to improve the flavor of their crops. Firstly, it is important to select a strain that is known to produce the type of flavors that are being sought. Properly flushing near the end of flowering will encourage plants to produce more Terpenes, as will using LED grow lights with ultraviolet (UV) light in their spectrum.
The taste and smell of a Cannabis harvest can be ruined by several factors, even if the terpene content is high. Failing to flush plants before harvest is important, or the accumulation of minerals from fertilizers may overtake terpenes in the taste department. Finally, properly drying and curing plants after harvest will prevent stagnation and potential contaminants. Otherwise, follow general good growing practices and the delicious terpenes will likely flourish on their own!